Like coaxial cable transmission system, optical network system also needs to couple, branch and distribute optical signals, which requires optical splitter to realize. Optical splitter is one of the important passive components in optical fiber link. It is an optical fiber junction device with multiple input terminals and multiple output terminals. MxN is commonly used to indicate that a splitter has M input terminals and N output terminals. The splitters used in the optical fiber CATV system are generally composef of 1x2,1x3 and 1xN optical splitters.
Optical fiber splitter is used to realize the splitting and combining of light wave energy. It distributes the optical energy transmitted in one optical fiber to two or more optical fibers according to a predetermined proportion, or combines the optical energy transmitted in multiple optical fibers into one optical fiber.
① A main light source is divided into 1-N light paths through a splitter
② It is to combine 1-N parts of the optical path through a splitter into a main light source for recovery.
Optical splitter is generally used between optical line terminal OLT and optical network terminal ONU of passive optical network to realize optical signal shunting. One optical splitter may be used in a passive optical network, or multiple optical splitters may be used to shunt optical signals together.
1xN optical splitter is used to distribute the transmission optical signal in one optical fiber to multiple optical fibers. There are many distribution forms: 1x2 1x3 1x4 1x5 1x6 1x8 1x12 1x16 1X24 1x32 1x64, etc. Or the 2xN optical splitter distributes the transmitted optical signals from two optical fibers to multiple optical fibers in the way of 2x4 2x8 2x16 2X24, etc
The general architecture of FTTH is: OLT (computer room office end) -odn (passive optical network distribution system) -onu (user terminal), in which the optical splitter is applied in ODN to realize that multiple end users share a PON interface. In the PON structure, when buildings are scattered and irregular, such as villas, with long spacing and low user density, centralized light distribution can make full use of resources and cover the surrounding areas.
Working principle of optical splitter
When a single-mode fiber conducts optical signals, the energy of light is not completely concentrated in the core, and a small amount is transmitted through the cladding near the core. In other words, if the cores of two optical fibers are close enough, the mode field of light transmitted in one optical fiber can enter the other optical fiber, and the optical signal is redistributed in the two optical fibers.
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