What is "fiber to the home" FTTH?

January 25, 2024
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"Fiber To The Home" means that the line connected to your home is optical fiber instead of ordinary network cable. It is currently the most advanced broadband access technology in the world. As the name suggests, a fiber optic cable goes directly to the home. Specifically, FTTH refers to installing optical network units (ONUs) at home users or enterprise users. It is the optical access network application type closest to users in the optical access series except FTTD (fiber to the desktop).


FTTH is fast, highly stable and has low packet loss rate. In the future, it can also support higher bandwidth, such as 50M, 100M, or 1000M, etc. The notable technical feature of FTTH is that it not only provides greater bandwidth, but also enhances the network's transparency in data formats, rates, wavelengths and protocols, relaxes requirements for environmental conditions and power supply, and simplifies maintenance and installation. At present, Chongqing Telecom's 100M is this access method.


Fiber to the home requires the use of optical modems. Purpose: used to convert optical fiber signals into network signals. Price: The functions of optical cat cameras vary depending on the brand and model. One unit costs about 300 yuan.

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Speaking of FTTH, there are FTTB and ADSL that are closer to it. The following will briefly introduce.


FTTB is fiber to the building, means that the fiber reaches the residential building and the weak current well, and then enters the user's home through network cables. Currently, the FTTB access method implemented by operators is mainly FTTB+LAN, and some commercial buildings also use MSTP technology.


The FTTB+LAN method has shortcomings such as poor management, many failure points, and high maintenance costs. In this method, since the optical fiber does not enter the home, the signal is not as stable and reliable as FTTH transmission. Moreover, when transmitted through the network, the network signal attenuation and interference resistance are not as good as that of optical fiber. Therefore, the actual Internet speed after arriving at the user's home will be somewhat different and not perfect. Therefore, this access method is generally below 20M. Very few telecommunications cells use this method. For optical fiber to the building, there is no need to use an optical modem because the network cable is used to enter the home.



ADSL used to be a cheap, convenient and reliable access method. However, this method has a limited maximum theoretical bandwidth, and 4M is already the upper limit. Currently, this wiring method is still used in relatively remote places such as Africa or some places in South America. At present, a small number of China Telecom's residential areas still use this method, and those that can be transformed have already been transformed into optical fiber to the home.


The necessity and the development status of FTTH at home and abroad


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